Below you will find the numerous cited references for this article. Please feel free to do more research on this subject.
Acts of the Privy Council, Colonial 1613-1783.
Adshead, Joseph, Distress in Manchester.
American Weekly Mercury.
Angle, Paul M., Created Equal: The Complete Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858.
Annesley, James, Memoirs of an Unfortunate Young Nobleman Returned from Thirteen Years Slavery in America.
Ashley, M., Financial and Commercial Policy Under Cromwells Protectorate.
Ayearst, Morley, The British West Indies.
Ayers, Edward L., Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the Nineteenth Century American South.
Baines, Edward, History of the Cotton Manufacture.
Ballagh, J.C., White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia.
Bassett, John S., Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of North Carolina.
Beckles, Hilary McD., Natural Rebels.
Beckles, Hilary McD., Plantation Production and White Proto-Slavery, The Americas, vol. 41, 1985.
Beckles, Hilary McD., Rebels and Reactionaries: The Political Responses of White Laborers to Planter-Class Hegemony in 17th Century Barbados, Journal of Caribbean History, vol. 15, 1981.
Beckles, Hilary McD., White Servitude and Black Slavery in Barbados, 1627-1715.
Bellamy, Joyce and Savilee, John, Dictionary of Labour Biography.
Berlin, Ira, Slaves Without Masters: The Free Black in the Antebellum South.
Biddle, Henry D., (editor), Extracts from the Journal of Elizabeth Drinker.
Breen, T.H., A Changing Labor Force and Race Relations in Virginia, 1660-1710, Journal of Social History, no. 7, (1973).
Bridenbaugh, Carl and Roberta, No Peace Beyond the Line: The English in the Caribbean, 1624-1690.
Bromberg, Eric I., Wales and the Medieval Slave Trade, Speculum no. 17, 1942.
Brown, Alexander, The First Republic in America.
Brownson, Orestes, The Laboring Classes, in Religion, Reform and Revolution.
Burn, James D., Three Years Among the Working Classes in he U.S. During the War.
Burton, Thomas, Parliamentary Diary: 1656-59.
Calder, Isabel M., Colonial Captives, Marches and Journeys.
Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West indies, 1574-1733.
Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1547-1704.
Campbell, John, Black-Mania.
Carey, Henry C., The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign.
Carlyle, Thomas, Occasional Discourse on the Black Question, in Frasers Magazine (Dec., 1849). Reprinted 1971 as The Nigger Question (Appleton-Century-Crofts).
Channing, Edward, History of the United States.
Chase, L. B., English Serfdom and American Slavery.
Child, Josiah, A New Discourse of Trade.
Chitwood, Oliver, A History of Colonial America.
Chvet, Stanley F., Lopez of Newport.
Cobden, John C., The White Slaves of England.
Connecticut Board of Commissioners of Common Schools, Legal Provision Respecting the Education and Employment of Children in Factories.
Cruickshank, Marjorie, Children and Industry.
Crumpe, Samuel, An Essay on the Best Means of Providing Employment For the People.
Cunliffe, Marcus, Chattel Slavery and Wage Slavery.
Dalby, Thomas, An Historical Account of the Rise and Growth of the West Indies Colonies.
Danckaerts, Jaspar and Sluyter, Peter, Journal of a Voyage to New York and a Tour of Several American Colonies, 1679-1680.
Darvall, F.O., Popular Disturbances and Public Order in Regency England.
Davies, Wendy, Wales in the Early Middle Ages.
Davis manuscript, Royal Commonwealth Society Archives.
Davis, David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution.
Davis, David Brion, Slavery and Human Progress.
Defoe, Daniel, Colonel Jack.
Defoe, Daniel, Moll Flanders.
Dodd, William, The Factory System Illustrated.
Donnan, Elizabeth, Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America.
Douglass, Frederic, Life and Times.
Driver, Cecil, Tory Radical: The Life of Richard Oastler.
Dulles, Foster Rhea, Labor in America, A History.
Dunlop, Jocelyn and Denham, Richard, English Apprenticeship and Child Labour.
Dunn, Richard S., Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713.
Eadon, John, (editor), Memoirs of Pere Labat, 1693-1705.
Eddis, William, Letters from America.
Egerton manuscript, British Museum.
Ekirch, A. Roger, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts into the Colonies, 1718-1775.
Emmer, P.C., Colonialism and Migration: Indentured Labor Before and After Slavery.
Esson, D.M.R., The Curse of Cromwell: A History of the Ironside Conquest of Ireland, 1649-1653.
Evans, Lloyd, and Nicholls, P., Convicts and Colonial Society.
Everett, Susanne, History of Slavery.
Fielden, John, The Curse of the Factory System.
Finch, John, Rise and Progress of the General Trades Union of New York.
Fitzhugh, George, Sociology for the South.
Fladeland, Betty, Abolitionists and Working-Class Problems in the Age of Industrialization.
Fleet, Beverly (ed.), Virginia Colonial Abstracts.
Fogel, Robert and Engerman, Stanley L., Time on the Cross.
Foner, Eric, Reconstruction: Americas Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877.
Ford, W.C., ed., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789.
Foster, Charles I., An Errand of Mercy.
Fraser, Walter J. Jr., Reflections of Democracy in Revolutionary South Carolina? The Composition of Military Organizations and the Attitudes and Relationships of the Officers and Men, 1775-1780, in The Southern Common People.
Galenson, David W., Traders, Planters and Slaves.
Galenson, David W., White Servitude in Colonial America.
Geiser, K.F., Redemptioners and Indentured Servants in the Colony and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Genovese, Eugene D., Rather Be a Nigger Than a Poor White Man: Slave Perceptions of Southern Yeomen and Poor Whites, in Toward a New View of America.
Genovese, Eugene D., Roll, Jordan Roll: The World the Slaves Made.
Genovese, Eugene D., The World the Slaveholders Made.
Glickstein, Jonathan A., Concepts of Free Labor in Antebellum America.
Going, Charles B., David Wilmot: Free-Soiler.
Gray, Lewis Cecil, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860.
Gray, Ralph and Wood, Betty, The Transition from Indentured to Involuntary Servitude in Colonial Georgia, Explorations in Economic History, October, 1976.
Grayson, William J., The Hireling and the Slave.
Greenberg, Douglas, Crime and Law Enforcement in the Colony of New York.
Hall, Richard, Acts Passed in the Island of Barbados.
Halliburton, R., Red Over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians.
Hammond, John, Leah and Rachel, or the Two Fruitful Sisters, Virginia and Maryland.
Handlin, Oscar and Mary F., Origins of the Southern Labor System, William and Mary Quarterly, April, 1950.
Hanway, Jonas, A Sentimental History of Chimney-Sweepers.
Harding, N. Dermott and Bowman, William Dodgson, Bristol and America: A Record of the First Settlers in the Colonies of North America, 1654-1685.
Harrington, J. Drew, Classical Antiquity and the Proslavery Argument, Slavery and Abolition, May, 1989.
Hartwell, R.M., The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth.
Hay, Douglas, Albions Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in 18th Century England.
Himmelfarb, Gertrude, The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age.
Hellie, Richard, Slavery in Russia, 1450-1725.
Hening, William, (editor), Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia from the First Session of the Legislature in the Year 1619.
Herrick, Cheesman A., White Servitude in Pennsylvania.
Hilton, Rodney H., Freedom and Villeinage in England, Past and Present, July, 1965.
Hirst, J.B., Convict Society and Its Enemies.
Hoffman, Ronald, The Disaffected in the Revolutionary South, in The American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism.
Hofstadter, Richard, Social Darwinism in American Thought.
Holland, Ruth, Mill Child.
Hollis, Patricia, Anti-Slavery and British Working-Class Radicalism, in Anti-Slavery, Religion and Reform.
Homer, Leonard, On the Employment of Children in Factories.
Hughes, Robert, The Fatal Shore.
Hummel, Jeffrey Rogers, The Civil War, The United States at War Audio Cassette Series.
Hurd, J.C., The Law of Freedom and Bondage in the United States.
Hyams, Paul, Kings, Lords and Peasants in Medieval England: The Common Law of Villeinage in the 12th and 13th Centuries.
Inglis, Brian, Poverty and the Industrial Revolution.
Innes, Stephen, Work and Labor in Early America.
Jernegan, Marcus W., Laboring and Dependent Classes in America, 1607-1783.
Jervey, Theo, The White Indentured Servants of South Carolina, South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 1911.
Johnson, Robert C., The Transportation of Vagrant Children from London to Virginia, in Early Stuart Studies.
Jones, Alice H., Wealth of a Nation to Be: The American Colonies on the Eve of the Revolution.
Journals of the Commons House of Assembly of the Province of South Carolina: 1692-1775.
Journals of the House of Commons, 1547-1900.
Kaminkov, Marion and Jack, ed., Original Lists of Emigrants Bondage from London to the American Colonies, 1719-1744.
Karras, Ruth Mazo, Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia.
Kay, James P., The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes.
Kingsbury, Susan, M., (ed.), The Records of the Virginia Company of London.
Laurens, Henry, Laurens Letters, 1767-1771.
Lefroy, John H., Memorials of the Discovery and Early Settlement of the Bermudas or Somers Islands, 1518-1685.
Lester, Charles Edwards, The Glory and the Shame of England.
Levine, Bruce, (et al.), Who Built America? Working People and the Nations Economy, Politics, Culture and Society. Vol. I: From Conquest and Colonization Through Reconstruction and the Great Uprising of 1877.
Ligon, Richard, A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbados.
Lucas manuscript, Bridgetown Public Library, Barbados.
Mackeson, John F., Bristol Transported.
MacLeod, Duncan, Slavery, Race and the American Revolution.
MacNiocaill, Geroid, Ireland Before the Vikings.
Maithus, T.R., An Essay on the Principle of Population.
Mantoux, Paul, The Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century.
Markham, Edwin and Lindsey, Benjamin B., and Creel, George, Children in Bondage.
McCormac, E.l., White Servitude in Maryland, 1634-1820.
McFeely, William S., Frederic Douglass.
McKee, Samuel, Labor in Colonial New York, 1664-1776.
McIllwaine, H.R., Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1619-1776.
Melville, Herman, Redburn: His First Voyage.
Melville, Herman, White Jacket.
Mendelsohn, Isaac, Slavery in the Ancient Near East.
Moran, Patrick F., Historical Sketch of the Persecutions Suffered by the Catholics of Ireland.
Morgan, Edmund S., American Slavery, American Freedom.
Morris, Richard B., Government and Labor in Early America.
Morris, Richard B., Massachusetts and the Common Law, American History Review, 1926.
Nardinelli, Clark, Child Labor and the Industrial Revolution.
Neal, Daniel, The Laws of New England to the Year 1700.
Norton, Caroline, A Voice from the Factories, in The Laboring Classes of England.
Novack, George, Americas Revolutionary Heritage.
Nugent, Nell Marion, Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, 1623-1666.
OBrien, Bronterre, The Rise, Progress and Phases of Human Slavery.
Oldmixon, John, The British Empire in America.
Pelteret, David A.E., Late Anglo-Saxon Slavery. (Canadian Theses on Microfiche).
Perkins, Edwin J., The Economy of Colonial America.
Philips, Ulrich B., Life and Labor in the Old South.
Phillips, George L., Englands Climbing-Boys.
Phillips, William D., Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade.
Prebble, John, Glencoe.
Prebble, John, The Highland Clearances.
Probate Court Records 1672-1779. Charleston, South Carolina.
Quimby, Ian, Apprenticeship in Colonial Philadelphia.
Rayback, Joseph G., A History of American Labor.
Register for the Privy Council of Scotland.
Rediker, Marcus, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea.
Reid, Richard, A Test Case of the Crying Evil: Desertion Among North Carolina Troops During the Civil War, North Carolina Historical Review, Summer, 1981.
Richardson, Samuel, The Apprentices Vade Mecum.
Riley, Edward M., ed., The Journal of John Harrower: An Indentured Servant in the Colony of Virginia, 1773-1776.
Rivers, Marcellus and Foyle, Oxenbridge, Englands Slaves or Barbados Merchandise.
Roediger, David R., The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class.
Rose, Willie Lee, A Documentary History of Slavery in North America.
Ruchames, L., Sources of Racial Thought in Colonial America, Journal of Black History, number 52.
Russell, John Henderson, Free Black in Virginia 1619-1865.
Salinger, Sharon V., To Serve Well and Faithfully: Labor and Indentured Servants in Pennsylvania, 1682-1800.
Schweninger, Loren, Black Property Owners in the South: 1790-1915.
Seybolt, Robert F., Apprenticeship and Apprenticeship Education in Colonial New England and New York.
Shaw, A.G.L., Convicts and the Colonies.
Shaw, Charles, When I Was a Child.
Sheppard, Jill, The Redlegs of Barbados: Their Origins and History.
Siebert, W.H., Slavery and Servitude in East Florida, 1726-1776, Quarterly Periodical of the Florida Historical Society, July, 1931.
Smith, Abbot Emerson, Colonists in Bondage.
Smith, Billy G., The Lower Sort: Philadelphias Laboring People, 1750-1800.
Smith, Warren B., White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, Sunny Memories.
Stowe manuscript, (324), British Museum.
Ste. Croix, G.E.M. de, Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labor.
Taylor, William, The White Slaves Complaint.
Thompson, E. P., The Making of the English Working Class.
Thomson, William, A Tradesmans Travels.
Thornbrough, Emma Lou, The Race Issue in Indiana Politics During the Civil War, Indiana Magazine of History, June, 1951.
Tomlins, Christopher, The Ties that Bind: Master and Servant in Massachusetts, 1800-1850, Labor History, Spring, 1989.
Tragicall Relation of the Virginia Assembly. Library of Congress.
Tree, Ronald, A History of Barbados.
Trefousse, Hans L., Andrew Johnson: A Biography.
Trollope, Frances, Domestic Manners.
Trollope, Frances, The Life and Adventures of Michael Armstrong, Factory Boy.
Uchteritz, Heinrich von, Kurze Reise.
Van Der Lee, John, Bound Over: Indentured Servitude and the American Conscience.
Verlinden, Charles, The Slave in Medieval Europe.
Wakefield, Edward Gibbon, England and America: A Comparison of the Social and Political State of Both Nations.
Ward, Harry M., Colonial America: 1607-1763.
Ward, J.T., The Factory Movement: 1830-1855.
Watson, Alan, Slave Law in the Americas.
Wergeland, Agnes Mathilde, Slavery in Germanic Society During the Middle Ages.
Werner, John M., Reaping the Bloody Harvest.
Whistler, Henry, Journal of the West India Expedition.
White, Pliny H., Life and Services of Matthew Lyon.
Wiedemann, Thomas, Greek and Roman Slavery.
Williams, Carl O., Thralldom in Ancient Iceland.
Williams, Eric, Capitalism and Slavery.
Williams, Eric, From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean.
Williamson, Peter, The Life and Curious Adventures of Peter Williamson, Who Was Carried Off From Aberdeen and Sold for a Slave.
Williamson, Peter, State of the Process, Peter Williamson Against William Fordyce and Others. British Museum.
Willis, Arthur J., A Calendar of South Hampton Apprenticeship Registers.
Wood, Michael, In Search of the Dark Ages.
Young, Brian, The Villeins Bible.